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What is Gap Analysis? A Complete Guide On How To Perform A Gap Analysis

Expanding businesses necessitate consistent monitoring of activities, performance, and records to pinpoint areas for growth. This ongoing assessment is crucial for optimizing operations and aligning strategies with business objectives. A reliable method to achieve this is through conducting a gap analysis. This insightful process sheds light on discrepancies between current performance and desired benchmarks. Exploring the intricacies of gap analysis becomes instrumental in enhancing business performance and achieving growth.

Delving into this approach equips businesses with the tools to identify and bridge gaps, ensuring a strategic path towards improved efficiency and successful attainment of business goals. If you’re seeking to harness the potential of gap analysis, delve further to understand its profound impact on how to improve your performance and expand your business.

What is a Gap Analysis?

Gap Analysis

A gap analysis is a strategic tool used by businesses to assess the variance between current performance and desired outcomes. It involves evaluating existing processes, performance metrics, capabilities, or resources against the established benchmarks or goals.

By identifying these discrepancies or “gaps,” companies gain insight into areas where improvements or changes are needed to bridge the disparity. Gap analysis serves as a guiding mechanism for businesses to comprehend shortcomings, determine the steps required to reach desired objectives, and devise actionable plans for organizational growth and improvement.

This systematic examination enables businesses to make informed decisions, allocate resources efficiently, and implement strategies aimed at achieving optimal performance and meeting set targets.

Benefits of Conducting a Gap Analysis

Conducting a gap analysis yields multifaceted benefits crucial for business development:

1. Comprehensive Insights

Gap analysis offers a detailed examination of a business’s functioning across diverse domains, encompassing operations, resources, technology, human capital, and market positioning. This comprehensive overview allows for a nuanced understanding of the organization’s current standing.

2. Strategic Alignment

It facilitates the alignment of business strategies with actionable plans. By identifying discrepancies between present conditions and desired outcomes, gap analysis leads efforts towards specific improvements, ensuring alignment with overarching goals and long-term vision.

3. Informed Decision-Making

Relying on empirical data and factual assessments, gap analysis aids in informed decision-making. By pinpointing precise areas that require attention, organizations can strategize effectively, set quantifiable objectives, and measure progress objectively.

4. Optimized Resource Management

Identifying gaps enables better resource allocation. By recognizing inefficiencies, redundancies, or underutilization of resources, businesses can reallocate assets strategically, ensuring optimal utilization and maximizing returns on investment.

5. Competitive Edge

Addressing weaknesses and leveraging strengths obtained from gap analysis fosters a competitive advantage. Understanding market demands and customer needs allows businesses to adapt, innovate, and stay ahead in the dynamic and competitive business landscape.

6. Proactive Risk Management

Recognizing potential risks or vulnerabilities helps in proactively managing them. Gap analysis enables organizations to anticipate and mitigate risks, thereby reducing the likelihood and impact of future disruptions.

7. Enhanced Operational Efficiency

Streamlining processes and workflows based on gap analysis insights leads to heightened operational efficiency. Continuous improvement initiatives foster a culture of innovation and efficiency, enhancing productivity across the organization.

8. Stakeholder Alignment and Engagement

Clear identification of improvement areas fosters alignment among stakeholders. Gap analysis encourages open dialogue, enhances collaboration, and ensures that all parties share a unified vision, promoting engagement and commitment toward common goals.

In summary, gap analysis provides a detailed roadmap for businesses, offering not just a diagnosis of existing gaps but also actionable insights for growth, efficiency, and sustained success. Its comprehensive approach guides organizations in making strategic decisions, optimizing resources, and fostering an environment conducive to continuous improvement.

When to Use a Gap Analysis

Gap analysis is a strategic tool used in various contexts, primarily in business and project management, to assess the current state of affairs against a desired or optimal state. It helps identify gaps or discrepancies between where an organization or project currently stands and where it wants or needs to be. Here are some instances when gap analysis is beneficial:

1. Strategic Planning

Gap analysis plays a crucial role in strategic planning by evaluating where an organization stands about its long-term goals. It helps in defining the steps needed to bridge the gap between the current situation and the desired future state. Whether it involves expanding market share, entering new markets, or launching innovative products/services, conducting a gap analysis aids in aligning strategies with overarching objectives.

2. Performance Evaluation

Businesses need to assess their performance regularly to identify strengths and weaknesses. Gap analysis facilitates this evaluation by comparing actual performance against predefined metrics or industry standards. By pinpointing areas where performance falls short or excels, organizations can strategize on how to leverage strengths and improve weaknesses, thus fostering overall growth.

3. Process Improvement

Identifying inefficiencies or bottlenecks in operational processes is crucial for enhancing productivity and reducing costs. Gap analysis helps in recognizing areas where processes are not optimized, enabling organizations to streamline workflows, eliminate redundancies, and enhance overall efficiency.

4. Product Development

Before launching new products or services, understanding market demands and competitor offerings is essential. Gap analysis assists in identifying unmet needs or opportunities within the market. It helps businesses determine where their product or service can fill a gap, ensuring that it meets consumer demands and remains competitive.

5. Compliance and Regulatory Requirements

Industries operate within specific regulations and standards. Gap analysis aids organizations in assessing their compliance levels with these requirements. By identifying gaps in meeting regulatory standards, companies can take corrective measures to ensure adherence and avoid potential legal or reputational risks.

6. Resource Allocation

Effective resource management is crucial for any project or organization. Gap analysis assists in evaluating available resources (financial, human, technological) against the requirements for achieving specific goals. It helps in optimizing resource allocation and planning by identifying shortages or excesses, ensuring efficient utilization.

7. Training and Development

Workforce competence is vital for organizational success. Gap analysis in the context of human resources helps in identifying skill gaps among employees. It provides insights into the areas where additional training or development initiatives are needed, thereby enhancing employee skills and overall organizational performance.

8. Risk Management

Businesses face various risks, including financial, operational, or market-related. Gap analysis assists in assessing the gap between potential risks and existing risk mitigation strategies. By identifying areas where risk exposure exceeds mitigation efforts, organizations can develop robust risk management plans to minimize vulnerabilities and anticipate potential threats.

In essence, gap analysis serves as a valuable tool across diverse business functions, guiding decision-making processes, and facilitating targeted actions to bridge gaps and achieve desired outcomes. Its application helps organizations adapt, innovate, and grow in a dynamic and competitive environment.

What are the Popular Gap Analysis Use Cases and Examples?

Gap analysis is a versatile tool used across various industries and disciplines to identify discrepancies between current and desired states. Here are popular use cases and gap analysis examples across different domains:

1. SWOT Analysis

SWOT Analysis

Conducting a gap analysis as part of a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis helps businesses evaluate internal and external factors such as strengths and weaknesses in comparison to opportunities and threats. For instance, a sales team might use this analysis to identify areas where its strengths can be leveraged to exploit market opportunities or to mitigate weaknesses that pose threats.

2. Market Analysis

Market Analysis

When launching a new product or entering a new market, businesses perform a market gap analysis. For instance, a tech company may analyze customer needs and preferences to identify gaps in existing solutions, leading to the development of innovative products that address unmet market needs.

3. Performance Analysis

Performance Analysis

In project management, gap analysis helps evaluate project performance against predefined goals or key performance indicators (KPIs). For instance, a project manager might assess the gap between planned project timelines and actual progress to identify areas for improvement or potential delays.

4. Training and Development

Training and Development

Human resources departments use gap analysis to identify skill gaps among employees. For example, a company might assess the current skills of its workforce against the skills needed for upcoming projects or advancements within the company, allowing them to plan targeted training programs to bridge those gaps.

5. Technology and IT Systems

In the realm of technology, businesses use gap analysis to assess their current technological infrastructure against industry standards or the requirements of new software/hardware. For example, a company might analyze the gap between its current cybersecurity measures and best practices to improve its defenses against cyber threats.

6. Compliance and Regulatory Requirements

Industries such as healthcare, finance, and manufacturing utilize gap analysis to ensure compliance with strict regulations and standards. For instance, a pharmaceutical company may perform a gap analysis to identify areas where its manufacturing processes deviate from regulatory guidelines to ensure adherence and avoid penalties.

7. Strategic Planning

Strategic Planning

Companies use gap analysis to align strategic objectives with current capabilities. For instance, a company aiming to expand globally might perform a gap analysis to assess its current market presence, resources, and competencies against the requirements for successful international expansion.

8. Customer Satisfaction and Experience

Businesses conduct gap analysis to understand gaps in customer expectations versus their experience with products or services. For example, a hospitality company might analyze customer feedback to identify areas where service quality does not meet customer expectations and implement improvements accordingly.

By applying gap analysis in these diverse scenarios, organizations can gain valuable insights, make informed decisions, and implement targeted strategies to bridge gaps and achieve their desired objectives.

Types Of Gap Analysis

Gap analysis can be executed in various ways based on the specific context and objectives of the assessment. Here are several types of gap analysis commonly used across different domains:

1. Performance Gap Analysis

Performance gap analysis otherwise known as strategic gap analysis involves a comprehensive review of an organization’s performance metrics compared to predetermined goals or benchmarks. It examines various aspects such as sales figures, productivity, efficiency, or other key performance indicators. For instance, a company might analyze production output against the targeted levels to identify any performance gaps.

Once identified, strategies can be devised to enhance performance and bridge these gaps, which may involve process optimization, resource reallocation, or skill development initiatives.

2. Market Gap Analysis

Market gap analysis focuses on understanding the gap between what customers want and what products or services are currently available in the market. By examining consumer preferences, trends, and competitors’ offerings, organizations can identify untapped market segments or unmet needs.

For example, a market gap analysis might reveal demand for eco-friendly household products, prompting a company to develop and market such products to meet this specific need.

3. Product Gap Analysis

Product gap analysis evaluates a product’s attributes, features, quality, or functionality in comparison to customer expectations or industry standards. It involves gathering customer feedback, conducting surveys, or benchmarking against competitors’ products.

For instance, a technology company may compare its software features with those of competitors to identify areas where improvements or additional functionalities are necessary to stay competitive.

4. SWOT Analysis

SWOT analysis examines an organization’s strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to develop a holistic view of its internal and external environment.

While not solely a gap analysis, it identifies areas where the organization lacks competitiveness, faces risks, or has untapped strengths that can be leveraged. For instance, a SWOT analysis might reveal a weakness in customer service that needs improvement to capitalize on a market opportunity.

5. Skills Gap Analysis

Skills gap analysis assesses the difference between the skills and competencies the organization currently possesses and those required to achieve its objectives. By identifying skill shortages or areas needing development, organizations can design training programs, succession plans, or recruitment strategies to bridge these gaps.

For example, a tech company might realize a lack of expertise in a specific programming language required for a new project and plan targeted training sessions for its employees.

6. Compliance Gap Analysis

Compliance gap analysis evaluates the extent to which an organization adheres to regulatory requirements, industry standards, or internal policies. It involves auditing processes, documentation, and practices to identify any deviations.

For instance, a healthcare provider might conduct a compliance gap analysis to ensure all patient data handling processes align with the latest data privacy regulations.

7. Technology Gap Analysis

Technology gap analysis assesses the disparity between an organization’s current technological capabilities and those necessary to achieve its goals. It involves evaluating existing systems, infrastructure, and emerging technologies to identify gaps.

For instance, a manufacturing company might analyze its machinery and automation levels to determine where technological upgrades could enhance production efficiency.

8. Financial Gap Analysis

Financial gap analysis or profit gap analysis compares an organization’s current financial status, including revenue, expenses, and profitability, against desired or projected financial performance.

By pinpointing areas of financial shortfall or opportunities for increased revenue, organizations can develop strategies such as cost-cutting measures, revenue diversification, or investment planning to bridge these gaps.

9. Process Gap Analysis

Process gap analysis examines the efficiency and effectiveness of organizational processes by comparing them against industry best practices or established standards. It involves mapping out workflows and identifying bottlenecks, redundancies, or areas for improvement.

For example, a retail company might analyze its supply chain processes to streamline inventory management and reduce delivery times.

10. Resource Gap Analysis

Resource gap analysis evaluates the availability and adequacy of resources—human, financial, and technological—compared to what is required to achieve organizational objectives.

It assists in optimizing resource allocation, identifying resource shortages, and planning for future needs. For instance, a startup might analyze its funding sources and need to secure additional investment required for expansion.

By conducting these different types of gap analysis, organizations can gain comprehensive insights into various aspects of their operations, enabling them to make informed decisions and implement targeted strategies to bridge gaps and achieve their desired objectives effectively.

What are the Fundamental Components of a Gap Analysis?

A gap analysis typically comprises several fundamental components that collectively form the framework for assessing and addressing discrepancies between the current state and desired goals or standards. These components include:

1. Establishing Objectives and Criteria: Defining clear and specific objectives is the starting point of any gap analysis. These objectives should be measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART criteria). Determining the criteria against which performance or capabilities will be assessed is crucial for accurate gap identification.

2. Current State Assessment: This involves thoroughly evaluating the current situation or existing conditions. It includes gathering data, metrics, and information related to processes, performance, resources, technology, skills, compliance, or any other relevant factors. The assessment provides a clear understanding of where the organization stands currently.

3. Defining Desired Future State or Goals: Clearly defining the ideal or desired future state is essential. This involves setting specific targets or goals that the organization aims to achieve. These goals should align with the overall strategic objectives and address the identified gaps.

4. Gap Identification and Analysis: Comparing the current state with the desired future state or established benchmarks reveals gaps or discrepancies. Analyzing these gaps involves understanding the nature, extent, and root causes of the differences between the two states. It’s essential to categorize and prioritize gaps based on their significance and potential impact on organizational goals.

5. Action Plan Development: Once gaps are identified and analyzed, an action plan is formulated to bridge these gaps. This plan outlines specific steps, strategies, initiatives, or changes required to move from the current state toward the desired state. Each action should be clearly defined, assigned responsibilities, have timelines, and be realistic in its implementation.

6. Resource Allocation and Implementation: Implementing the action plan involves allocating resources such as finances, human resources, technology, and time. Resources should be allocated according to the prioritized actions identified in the gap analysis. Proper planning and allocation ensure effective execution of strategies aimed at closing the identified gaps.

7. Monitoring and Evaluation: Continuous monitoring and evaluation are critical components of gap analysis. It involves tracking progress, measuring the effectiveness of implemented actions, and reassessing the gap periodically. Regular evaluations help in identifying any new gaps that may arise, assessing the success of implemented measures, and making necessary adjustments to stay aligned with organizational goals.

8. Documentation and Reporting: Documenting the entire gap analysis process, including assessments, findings, action plans, and outcomes, is crucial for organizational learning and transparency. Gap Analysis Reports should be prepared to communicate the analysis results, progress, and any recommendations or insights to stakeholders, management, or relevant teams.

By incorporating these fundamental components into the gap analysis process, organizations can systematically identify, analyze, and address gaps, thereby enhancing performance, achieving strategic objectives, and ensuring continuous improvement.

Step By Step Guide On How To Perform Gap Analyses

Performing a gap analysis involves several systematic steps to assess current performance or capabilities against desired goals or benchmarks. Here’s a step-by-step guide on how to conduct a comprehensive gap analysis:

Step 1: Define Objectives and Criteria

The first step to performing a gap analysis involves identifying and clearly defining the specific objectives or goals you want to achieve through the gap analysis. Ensure these goals are SMART (Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Relevant, Time-bound). Define the criteria or metrics against which you’ll measure performance or capabilities. This could involve key performance indicators (KPIs), industry standards, compliance requirements, or any other relevant benchmarks.

Step 2: Assess Current State

Next, you collect comprehensive data related to processes, performance, resources, skills, technology, compliance, or any other relevant factors. Use various sources such as internal records, surveys, interviews, or external benchmarks. Analyze the gathered data to assess the current state. Evaluate strengths, weaknesses, areas of improvement, and any discrepancies between the current situation and the predefined criteria or goals.

Step 3: Define Future State or Goals

In this step, clearly articulate the ideal future state or goals that the organization aims to achieve. Ensure these goals are aligned with the overall strategic objectives and address the identified gaps.

Step 4: Identify and Analyze Gaps

Once you have defined your goals, compare the current assessment findings with the defined future state or goals. Identify and categorize the gaps or discrepancies that exist in processes, performance, resources, skills, or any other relevant areas. Investigate the root causes of identified gaps. Understand why these gaps exist, whether due to resource limitations, process inefficiencies, skill shortages, compliance issues, or other factors.

Step 5: Develop an Action Plan

Based on the identified gaps and their root causes, develop an action plan. Define specific strategies, initiatives, or changes required to bridge the gaps. Each action should be clear, feasible, and aligned with the organization’s goals. Determine the resources needed (financial, human, technological) for implementing the action plan. Assign responsibilities and roles to individuals or teams involved in executing the strategies.

Step 6: Implement and Monitor Progress

Execute the strategies outlined in the action plan. Monitor progress closely to ensure timely implementation and adherence to the plan. Continuously monitor the progress made in bridging the identified gaps. Evaluate the effectiveness of implemented measures and make adjustments as needed.

Step 7: Document and Report

This final step involves maintaining detailed documentation of the entire gap analysis process, including assessments, action plans, progress reports, and outcomes. This documentation serves as a reference for future assessments and organizational learning. Prepare a gap analysis report summarizing the gap analysis findings, progress made, insights gained, and any recommendations for further improvements. Communicate these results to stakeholders, management, or relevant teams.

By following these steps systematically, organizations can perform a structured and effective gap analysis that helps in identifying, addressing, and closing the gaps between current performance or capabilities and desired objectives or standards.

What Makes up a Gap Analysis Template?

A gap analysis template is a structured framework that guides the process of assessing the variance or discrepancies between the current state and the desired or optimal state within an organization or project. Such a template typically includes several key components to facilitate a systematic analysis:

1. Title and Introduction: The template begins with a title that clearly defines the purpose of the gap analysis. An introduction section provides an overview of the analysis, its objectives, and the areas it will cover.

2. Objectives and Criteria: Define the specific goals or objectives the analysis aims to achieve. This section outlines the criteria or benchmarks against which the current state will be evaluated.

3. Current State Assessment: This part involves gathering data and information about the existing processes, performance, resources, skills, technology, compliance, or any other relevant factors. It may include tables, charts, or sections for different aspects being evaluated.

4. Desired Future State: Clearly articulate the ideal future state or goals that the organization aims to achieve. Describe what success looks like and how it aligns with broader strategic objectives.

5. Gap Identification and Analysis: Compare the current assessment findings with the desired future state or predefined criteria. Identify and categorize the gaps or discrepancies that exist in various areas, highlighting where the organization falls short of its objectives.

6. Root Cause Analysis: Investigate and analyze the root causes of the identified gaps. Understand why these gaps exist, whether due to resource limitations, process inefficiencies, skill shortages, compliance issues, or other factors. This section may include charts or diagrams depicting causal relationships.

7. Action Plan Development: Formulate an action plan based on the identified gaps and their root causes. Outline specific strategies, initiatives, or changes required to bridge the gaps. Each action should be detailed, with defined steps, responsible parties, timelines, and resources needed.

8. Resource Allocation and Responsibilities: Detail the allocation of resources—financial, human, technological—for implementing the action plan. Assign responsibilities and roles to individuals or teams involved in executing the strategies.

9. Monitoring and Evaluation Plan: Describe how progress will be monitored, measured, and evaluated. Define metrics or key performance indicators (KPIs) to track progress, assess the effectiveness of implemented measures, and set intervals for reassessment.

10. Documentation and Reporting: Include sections for documenting findings, outcomes, progress reports, and recommendations. This documentation serves as a record for future reference and organizational learning. A reporting section outlines how the results and insights will be communicated to stakeholders or management.

The structure and specific elements within a gap analysis template can vary based on the organization’s needs, the complexity of the analysis, and the industry. Customizing the template to suit the unique requirements of the analysis is essential for an effective assessment and action plan development.

5 Best Gap Analysis Tools

Here are five of the best gap analysis tools widely used by organizations:

1. Smartsheet


Smartsheet is a versatile project management and collaboration tool that offers features suitable for conducting gap analysis. It allows users to create custom grids, templates, and dashboards, making it convenient to organize data, collaborate with teams, and track progress during the gap analysis process.

2. Microsoft Excel/Google Sheets

Microsoft Excel/Google Sheets

Excel or Google Sheets remain popular tools for conducting gap analysis due to their flexibility and familiarity. They allow users to create spreadsheets, perform calculations, organize data, and generate charts or graphs to visualize gaps, making them suitable for smaller-scale analyses.

3. Lucidchart


Lucidchart is a diagramming and visual collaboration tool that aids in mapping processes, creating flowcharts, and visualizing data. It offers templates specifically designed for gap analysis, enabling users to create visual representations of current and future states, helping identify gaps, and developing action plans.

4. Miro


Miro is a digital whiteboarding platform used for collaborative work, brainstorming, and visual planning. It allows teams to create diagrams, mind maps, and visual representations of processes, making it useful for performing gap analysis collaboratively, especially when multiple stakeholders are involved.

5. i-nexus


i-nexus is a strategic execution platform that supports strategy deployment, goal alignment, and performance management. It offers features for conducting gap analysis, defining objectives, tracking progress, and managing initiatives across the organization.

Before selecting a gap analysis tool, it’s essential to consider factors such as the specific requirements of your organization, ease of use, collaboration features, integration capabilities, security, and cost-effectiveness. Conducting thorough research and considering user reviews can help in selecting the most suitable tool for your gap analysis needs.

How To Perform A Gap Analysis: The Bottom Line

In conclusion, conducting a comprehensive gap analysis unveils vital insights that propel organizational growth. By meticulously evaluating the disparities between current performance and desired objectives, businesses can strategically navigate challenges, optimize processes, and seize opportunities. This systematic approach not only identifies areas needing improvement but also guides the formulation of targeted action plans.

Embracing continuous monitoring and adaptive strategies based on gap analysis findings fosters resilience, innovation, and sustainable progress. Ultimately, the informed decisions derived from gap analysis serve as a cornerstone for businesses, empowering them to bridge gaps, achieve goals, and thrive in dynamic environments.